Mortality and Longevity in Neonates: A 3 Years Retrospective Study of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Deaths in a Referral Hospital in India
Introduction: Child mortality is one of the most common public health problems which majority of public health programs tries to address. Although child mortality has been reduced in the past decade, at the same time neonatal mortality raised significantly reflecting itself as a public health problem. The current study tries to epidemiologically study various causes of neonatal mortality in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and quantify how those various causes influence the longitivity of the neonates. Methods: The study draws itself from the secondary data analysis from the data obtained from the 3 years NICU death registers of the hospital. Data analysis by descriptive statistics, correlational analysis, and multivariate regression analysis is done using Statistical Software for Social Sciences. Results: A total number of deaths n = 5119, males = 3130, females = 1989. Mean age = 4.16 days, mean weight = 1.913 kg. 66.49% of deaths because of cardiac arrest (CRA), cardio respiratory failure (CRF), respiratory failure (RF). Birth weight of the neonate is positively correlated with number of days lived r = 0.039, P ≤ 0.05. Multivariate regression analysis between independent variable (number of days lived) and independent variables: For CRA, CRF, and RF b = −15.829, t = −6.552, P < 0.01. For sepsis and meningitis b = −12.624, t = −5.202, P < 0.01. For birth asphyxia and hyaline membrane disease b = −16.997, t = −6.991, P < 0.01. For other causes b = −16.541, t = −6.824, P < 0.01. For weight of the neonate b = 0.241, t = 2.530, P < 0.05. For gender of the neonate b = −0.027, t = −1.60. Conclusion: Neonatal mortality is most of the times sidelined though accounts for the majority of infant and child mortality in the country. The study reflects on the various causes of neonatal mortality for a 3 years span among the children admitted into NICU. The study results reflect the need for placement of appropriate technologies, increased focus on basic aseptic techniques in the hospital and implementation of long-term sustainable public health programs to reduce neonatal mortality, especially in the deprived sections of the community.