Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Hypertension and Its Correlates in a Rural Setting of Northern Nigeria: A Cross-sectional Study
Background: Hypertension is a major public health problem in Nigeria; it contributes to the double burden of morbidity and mortality in the country. However, the burden of hypertension is not known in many areas of the country particularly rural settlements. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and spatial distribution of hypertension and its correlates in a rural district of Northern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 512 adults 18 years and above took part in a community-based cross-sectional survey. Data were collected through administering questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and blood glucose measurements. Standard logistic regression models were used to examine the association between hypertension and its correlates. Spatial distribution was assessed using graduated point symbology. Data analysis was performed using Stata statistical software version 14 and ArcGIS. Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension in the study population was 18.4% (men 18.1% vs. women 18.6%), hypertensive participants were significantly older than normotensive participants, mean age (51.1 [13.0] years versusd 33.6 [12.4], P < 0.05). The risk of hypertension was higher among women (adjusted odds ratios 2.99, 95% confidence interval 1.42, 6.28). The spatial analysis revealed variation in the prevalence of hypertension and its correlates across communities with the resident populations of Hadin, Unguwar Jibrin, Zaburan, Madana, Askandu, and Yalleman communities being at a higher risk. Conclusion: Hypertension is a significant public health issue even in remotest areas of low- and middle-income countries, and therefore, cost-effective population-wide prevention strategies are required.