Int J Sci Study International Journal of Scientific Study 2321-6379 2395-1893 Smile Nation - Lets Smile Together India IJPPHS-2-16 10.17354/ijpphs/2016/49 Original Article Evaluation of Anger in Teachers of Primary Schools in the Sanandaj City, Iran Valizadeh Rohollah 1 Ghaderi Naseh 2 Yousefi Fayegh 3 Taymoori Parvaneh 4 Azadi Namamali 5 Khasi Bita 2 Student, Department of Epidemiology, Student Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Graduate, Department of Health Education, Student Research Committee Member, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran Graduate, Department of Psychiatry, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Iran Graduate, Department of Health, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran Graduate, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran CORRESPONDing AUTHOR: Bita Khasi, Master of Health Education, Student Research Committee Member, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran. Phone: +98-9188556381. E-mail: Jan–Feb 2017 02 2017 2 5 16 19 102016 112016 122016 Copyright: © International Journal of Preventive and Public Health Sciences 2017

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Anger may be a fleeting wrath or discomfort. Anger is one of the most important innate excitements that can affect an individual’s physical and mental health. Anger is any behavior directed toward another individual that is done with immediate willing to harm others. It affects academic learning and emotional development of students and can damage the space of education in school and if continue, students may precipitate with extreme violence in the future. The aim of this study was to determine anger in teachers of primary schools.

Materials and Methods:

This was a descriptive-analytic study that carried out on 283 teachers (139 teachers of boy’s school and 144 teachers of girl’s school). The sampling method of this study was randomization of teachers list obtained from education office. The data collecting instruments were standard questionnaire, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and R software.


The results showed that the mean age of teachers was 41.90 ± 22.69 years. The highest frequency in terms of the level of education was related to bachelor’s degree with 50 teachers (17.67%). The highest mean of the outer and inner anger was related to the teachers of schools. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between the outer and inner anger (P < 0.01).


Given that trait anger is directly related to incidence of anger and considering that the mean scores were more than optimal level, it is needed to retrain teachers about how to teach without anger.

Anger Primary school Teachers

One of the basic emotions of human that typically was argued in investigative reports after fear is anger. Anger is an emotional status in a range of physical and mental that may include from irritability to wrath.1 Anger is an emotion that is precipitated by hostile attitudes and high arousal2 that is often a precursor to aggression and is influenced by complex interactions.3 Chronic anger negatively affects physical and mental health, social interaction, and quality of life.4 Anger expression-out scale describes which people express emotional experience of anger and poorly control and anger expression in scale measures which people hold things in or suppress anger when they are furious.5 Aggression affects academic learning and emotional development of students and it can damage schools target and maybe precipitated by extreme violence in the future.6 Control of excitements are mentally very valuable,7 and that is a negative emotional status that may emerge as a reaction leading to vulnerability before a threat, coercion or damage, regardless of whether it is real or imaginary.8

Anger is a basic emotion identified in a primary stage of hostility and aggression development.9 Aggression is a complex phenomenon associated with genetic, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors.10 Some of the causes of increased violence have been identified such as the accessibility of guns, global warming, violence against children in schools and homes, and the widespread exposure to violent entertainment media.11 The youth risk behavior surveillance in 2007 reported that 27.1% of boys and 7.1% of girls had carried a weapon in schools during the last 30 days.6 Chronic type of anger has negative effects on physical and mental health, social interaction, and quality of life.12 Expression of anger is also related to disruptive interpersonal consequences and physical illnesses as high blood pressure, coronary heart disease and cancer.13 Several investigators have documented associations between depression and outward anger expression.14-17 Occupational stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization endanger mental health of teachers.18 Anger management skills including social protection systems, listening skills, negotiation skills, problem-solving skills, relaxation skills, expertise, and skills to maintain the internal controls of humor.12 In every society, self-control is important for getting along with others. It has even been suggested that the overarching purpose of self-control in humans is inherently social in nature.19

Meta-analytic reviews of sex differences in aggression from real world were described. They cover self-reports, observations, peer reports, and teacher reports of overall direct, physical, verbal, and indirect forms of aggression, as well as (for self-reports) trait anger. Findings are related to sexual selection theory and social role theory. Physical, aggression especially was more common in males and females at all ages and was consistent with cultures and occurred from early childhood that arrived to the peak between 20 and 30 years. Anger shows no sex differences and in female, indirect aggression was limited to adolescence and varied with method of measurement.20 The aim of this study was evaluation of anger expression of teachers in primary schools.


This was a descriptive-analytic study. The population of this study included schools teachers in Sanandaj city. Participants were selected randomly that carried out on 283 teachers (139 teachers of boy’s school and 144 teachers of girl’s school) and 30 schools were evaluated. The severity of anger has been evaluated using scale of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory that was built for evaluating structures of anger.21,22 The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts.23 This questionnaire has 57 questions with Likert scale in 4 options including never, sometimes, often and always that every question has 1-4 score (minimum score of 1 and a maximum of 4). Cronbach’s alpha for external and internal anger were 60% and 73%, respectively.24 The data were analyzed by the statistical software of SPSS version 18 for evaluating descriptive statistics and correlation and software R for using the statistical methods of analysis of variance (ANOVA).


The results showed that the frequency of first grade teachers were 46, second grade teachers were 48, third grade teachers were 38, fourth grade teachers were 46, fifth grade teachers were 47, sixth grade teachers were 34, and combined teachers (exercise teachers and training teachers and health educator). The mean age of teachers was 41.90 ± 22.69 years. The mean score of anger for total sample was 40.79 ± 5.52, and there was no significant difference in scores between teachers of boy’s schools (40.32 ± 4.93) and girl’s schools (41.24 ± 6.01). The highest mean of the outer and inner anger was related to the second and fourth grade of teachers with the mean of 15.48 ± 3.08 and 18/77 ± 4.23, respectively. Anger expression of teachers in each grade was shown in Table 1. An ANOVA was conducted to explore anger of teachers according to type of school. There was a significant relationship between school sexuality and years of service with anger expression (P < 0.05), as shown in Table 2. Correlations of the factors derived from the anger-out and anger in are presented in Table 3.

Mean of anger expression according to sex and grade

Multivariate analysis of anger with variables

Correlation among subscales of anger teachers


The aim of this study was evaluation of anger expression of primary schools teachers in Sanandaj city. Results showed that the variables including gender and years of service had a significant relationship with anger at of schools teachers. The results of this study were not consistent with the theory of Hilgard who believes that there is a significant difference between women and men in terms of anger and women express more excitement. In fact, anger and arrogance can be seen more in men.25 Furthermore, the result of our study was not consistent with the study of Zahedi Far et al. that there was a significant relationship between anger and sex and also their anger among men was low compared to women.26

The results of our study were not consistent with the study of Thomas et al., Archer et al., and Yousefi et al. that showed there was no significant difference between the sex and anger.20,27-29 Obviously, many factors can effect on behavior of anger.30 It seems that future research should be done on the factors that effect on behavior of anger and its rate beside that factors.

The findings of our study did not support the existence of a significant relationship between anger and grade and were consistent with the study of Zibaei et al. that showed the lack correlation between the educational grade and anger.31 The results showed that average score of anger among teachers in Sanandaj was lower than teachers in Tehran.30

The outer and inner anger of teachers were 14.57 ± 3.23 and 16.90 ± 3.78, respectively. In the study of Shokoohi-Yekta et al., the outer and inner anger of teachers were 15.56 ± 3 and 19.44 ± 4.17, respectively.32 The results showed that average correlation of inner and outer anger were more that was consistent with the study of Shokoohi-Yekta et al., Khodayarifard et al., and Moghadasin and Moghadam.24,32,33


The results indicated the high level of anger among teachers of Sanandaj compared to the optimal level. Given that teachers have a high impact on children’s education status, it is crucial to improve teachers’ mental status, and this important issue must be paid attention by staff of education ministry.


The authors would like to thank the student research committee of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences for financial supporting of this project, especially of the teachers participating in the study.

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