Int J Sci Study International Journal of Scientific Study 2321-6379 2395-1893 Smile Nation - Lets Smile Together India IJPPHS-2-16 10.17354/ijpphs/2016/49 Original Article Evaluation of Anger in Teachers of Primary Schools in the Sanandaj City, Iran Valizadeh Rohollah 1 Ghaderi Naseh 2 Yousefi Fayegh 3 Taymoori Parvaneh 4 Azadi Namamali 5 Khasi Bita 2 Student, Department of Epidemiology, Student Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Graduate, Department of Health Education, Student Research Committee Member, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran Graduate, Department of Psychiatry, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Iran Graduate, Department of Health, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran Graduate, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Iran CORRESPONDing AUTHOR: Bita Khasi, Master of Health Education, Student Research Committee Member, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran. Phone: +98-9188556381. E-mail: bitakhsi@gmail.com Jan–Feb 2017 02 2017 2 5 16 19 102016 112016 122016 Copyright: © International Journal of Preventive and Public Health Sciences 2017

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Background:

Anger may be a fleeting wrath or discomfort. Anger is one of the most important innate excitements that can affect an individual’s physical and mental health. Anger is any behavior directed toward another individual that is done with immediate willing to harm others. It affects academic learning and emotional development of students and can damage the space of education in school and if continue, students may precipitate with extreme violence in the future. The aim of this study was to determine anger in teachers of primary schools.

Materials and Methods:

This was a descriptive-analytic study that carried out on 283 teachers (139 teachers of boy’s school and 144 teachers of girl’s school). The sampling method of this study was randomization of teachers list obtained from education office. The data collecting instruments were standard questionnaire, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and R software.

Results:

The results showed that the mean age of teachers was 41.90 ± 22.69 years. The highest frequency in terms of the level of education was related to bachelor’s degree with 50 teachers (17.67%). The highest mean of the outer and inner anger was related to the teachers of schools. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between the outer and inner anger (P < 0.01).

Conclusion:

Given that trait anger is directly related to incidence of anger and considering that the mean scores were more than optimal level, it is needed to retrain teachers about how to teach without anger.

Anger Primary school Teachers
INTRODUCTION

One of the basic emotions of human that typically was argued in investigative reports after fear is anger. Anger is an emotional status in a range of physical and mental that may include from irritability to wrath.1 Anger is an emotion that is precipitated by hostile attitudes and high arousal2 that is often a precursor to aggression and is influenced by complex interactions.3 Chronic anger negatively affects physical and mental health, social interaction, and quality of life.4 Anger expression-out scale describes which people express emotional experience of anger and poorly control and anger expression in scale measures which people hold things in or suppress anger when they are furious.5 Aggression affects academic learning and emotional development of students and it can damage schools target and maybe precipitated by extreme violence in the future.6 Control of excitements are mentally very valuable,7 and that is a negative emotional status that may emerge as a reaction leading to vulnerability before a threat, coercion or damage, regardless of whether it is real or imaginary.8

Anger is a basic emotion identified in a primary stage of hostility and aggression development.9 Aggression is a complex phenomenon associated with genetic, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors.10 Some of the causes of increased violence have been identified such as the accessibility of guns, global warming, violence against children in schools and homes, and the widespread exposure to violent entertainment media.11 The youth risk behavior surveillance in 2007 reported that 27.1% of boys and 7.1% of girls had carried a weapon in schools during the last 30 days.6 Chronic type of anger has negative effects on physical and mental health, social interaction, and quality of life.12 Expression of anger is also related to disruptive interpersonal consequences and physical illnesses as high blood pressure, coronary heart disease and cancer.13 Several investigators have documented associations between depression and outward anger expression.14-17 Occupational stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization endanger mental health of teachers.18 Anger management skills including social protection systems, listening skills, negotiation skills, problem-solving skills, relaxation skills, expertise, and skills to maintain the internal controls of humor.12 In every society, self-control is important for getting along with others. It has even been suggested that the overarching purpose of self-control in humans is inherently social in nature.19

Meta-analytic reviews of sex differences in aggression from real world were described. They cover self-reports, observations, peer reports, and teacher reports of overall direct, physical, verbal, and indirect forms of aggression, as well as (for self-reports) trait anger. Findings are related to sexual selection theory and social role theory. Physical, aggression especially was more common in males and females at all ages and was consistent with cultures and occurred from early childhood that arrived to the peak between 20 and 30 years. Anger shows no sex differences and in female, indirect aggression was limited to adolescence and varied with method of measurement.20 The aim of this study was evaluation of anger expression of teachers in primary schools.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This was a descriptive-analytic study. The population of this study included schools teachers in Sanandaj city. Participants were selected randomly that carried out on 283 teachers (139 teachers of boy’s school and 144 teachers of girl’s school) and 30 schools were evaluated. The severity of anger has been evaluated using scale of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory that was built for evaluating structures of anger.21,22 The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts.23 This questionnaire has 57 questions with Likert scale in 4 options including never, sometimes, often and always that every question has 1-4 score (minimum score of 1 and a maximum of 4). Cronbach’s alpha for external and internal anger were 60% and 73%, respectively.24 The data were analyzed by the statistical software of SPSS version 18 for evaluating descriptive statistics and correlation and software R for using the statistical methods of analysis of variance (ANOVA).

RESULTS

The results showed that the frequency of first grade teachers were 46, second grade teachers were 48, third grade teachers were 38, fourth grade teachers were 46, fifth grade teachers were 47, sixth grade teachers were 34, and combined teachers (exercise teachers and training teachers and health educator). The mean age of teachers was 41.90 ± 22.69 years. The mean score of anger for total sample was 40.79 ± 5.52, and there was no significant difference in scores between teachers of boy’s schools (40.32 ± 4.93) and girl’s schools (41.24 ± 6.01). The highest mean of the outer and inner anger was related to the second and fourth grade of teachers with the mean of 15.48 ± 3.08 and 18/77 ± 4.23, respectively. Anger expression of teachers in each grade was shown in Table 1. An ANOVA was conducted to explore anger of teachers according to type of school. There was a significant relationship between school sexuality and years of service with anger expression (P < 0.05), as shown in Table 2. Correlations of the factors derived from the anger-out and anger in are presented in Table 3.

Mean of anger expression according to sex and grade

Multivariate analysis of anger with variables

Correlation among subscales of anger teachers

DISCUSSION

The aim of this study was evaluation of anger expression of primary schools teachers in Sanandaj city. Results showed that the variables including gender and years of service had a significant relationship with anger at of schools teachers. The results of this study were not consistent with the theory of Hilgard who believes that there is a significant difference between women and men in terms of anger and women express more excitement. In fact, anger and arrogance can be seen more in men.25 Furthermore, the result of our study was not consistent with the study of Zahedi Far et al. that there was a significant relationship between anger and sex and also their anger among men was low compared to women.26

The results of our study were not consistent with the study of Thomas et al., Archer et al., and Yousefi et al. that showed there was no significant difference between the sex and anger.20,27-29 Obviously, many factors can effect on behavior of anger.30 It seems that future research should be done on the factors that effect on behavior of anger and its rate beside that factors.

The findings of our study did not support the existence of a significant relationship between anger and grade and were consistent with the study of Zibaei et al. that showed the lack correlation between the educational grade and anger.31 The results showed that average score of anger among teachers in Sanandaj was lower than teachers in Tehran.30

The outer and inner anger of teachers were 14.57 ± 3.23 and 16.90 ± 3.78, respectively. In the study of Shokoohi-Yekta et al., the outer and inner anger of teachers were 15.56 ± 3 and 19.44 ± 4.17, respectively.32 The results showed that average correlation of inner and outer anger were more that was consistent with the study of Shokoohi-Yekta et al., Khodayarifard et al., and Moghadasin and Moghadam.24,32,33

CONCLUSION

The results indicated the high level of anger among teachers of Sanandaj compared to the optimal level. Given that teachers have a high impact on children’s education status, it is crucial to improve teachers’ mental status, and this important issue must be paid attention by staff of education ministry.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank the student research committee of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences for financial supporting of this project, especially of the teachers participating in the study.

REFERENCES Bushman BJ Baumeister RF Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence? J Pers Soc Psychol 1998 75 219 29 Bresin K Hilmert CJ Wilkowski BM Robinson MD Response speed as an individual difference: Its role in moderating the agreeableness–anger relationship J Res Pers 2012 46 79 86 Burns D The Experience and Expression of Anger and Aggression in Dating Relationships for Male College Athletes in Contact and Non-Contact Sports 2009 Oklahoma State University Dahlen E Deffenbacher J Anger Management Empirically Supported Cognitive-Therapies Current and Future Applications 2001 New York Springer 163 81 Vagg PR Spielberger CD State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory Interpretive Report (STAXI-2) PAR Psychological Assessment Resources 2000 1 12 Dutt D Pandey GK Pal D Hazra S Dey TK Magnitude, types and sex differentials of aggressive behaviour among school children in a rural area of West Bengal Indian J Community Med 2013 38 109 13 Khasi B Yousefi F Azadi N Taymoori P Kohzadi S Bagheri S Evaluation state anger of the boys and girls of primary school teachers Sanandaj Med J Zanko 2016 17 47 54 De La Rubia JM González Ramírez MT Hernández RL Factor structure of the STAXI-2-AX and its relationship to burnout in housewives Span J Psychol 2010 13 418 30 Del Barrio V Aluja A Spielberger C Anger assessment with the STAXI-CA: Psychometric properties of a new instrument for children and adolescents Pers Individ Dif 2004 37 227 44 Comai S Tau M Gobbi G The psychopharmacology of aggressive behavior: A translational approach: Part 1: Neurobiology J Clin Psychopharmacol 2012 32 83 94 Craig A Bushman BJ Human aggression J Rev Psychol 2002 53 27 51 Tahmasebian H Roshani B Farhadi K Amjadian P Effects of anger management training on students mental health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences World Appl Program J 2014 4 58 64 Azevedo FB Wang YP Goulart AC Lotufo PA Benseñor IM Application of the Spielberger’s state-trait anger expression inventory in clinical patients Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2010 68 231 4 Terasaki DJ Gelaye B Berhane Y Williams MA Anger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia BMC Public Health 2009 9 13 Koh KB Kim DK Kim SY Park JK The relation between anger expression, depression, and somatic symptoms in depressive disorders and somatoform disorders J Clin Psychiatry 2005 66 485 91 Richmond M Spring B Sommerfeld BK MeChargue D Rumination and cigarette smoking: A bad combination for depressive outcomes? J Consult Clin Psychol 2001 69 836 40 Rudnicki SR Graham JL Habboushe DF Ross RD Social support and avoidant coping: Correlates of depressed mood during pregnancy in minority women Women Health 2001 34 19 34 Bayani AA Samiei R The effect of job stress and job burnout on mental health of elementary teachers: Examining a hypothetical model Iran J Health Educ Promot 2014 2 312 21 Jensen-Campbell LA Knack JM Waldrip AM Campbell SD Do big five personality traits associated with self-control infuence the regulation of anger and aggression? J Res Pers 2007 41 403 24 Archer J Sex differences in aggression in real-world settings: A meta-analytic review Rev Gen Psychol 2004 8 291 322 Spielberger CD STAXI-2: State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2;Professional Manual 2010 Odessa, FL Psychological Assessment Resources (PAR) Spielberger CD Johnson EH Russell SF Crane RJ Jacobs GA Worden TJ The experience and expression of anger: Construction and validation of an anger expression scale Anger and Hostility in Cardiovascular and Behavioral Disorders 1985 New York Hemisphere, McGraw-Hill 5 30 Sinclair JS Czech DR Exploration of state and trait anger, anger expression, and perfectionism in collegiate springboard divers Under the Direction of SIU-C 2003 2005 90 Georgia Southern University Electronic Theses and Dissertations 90 Khodayarifard M Lavasan GM Zardkhaneh SA Liaghat S Psychometric properties of spielberger’s state-trait anger expression inventory-2 among of Iranian students J Rehabil 2007 11 47 56 Atkinson RL Hylgard E Meisami Rad FM Abdolreza M Atkinson Psychology and Hylgard 2013 15th ed Tehran Arjmand 590 Zahedi Far S Najariyan B Shekar Kan H Develop and validate a scale to measure aggression J Educ Psychol 2000 3 73 102 Thomas SP Age differences in anger frequency, intensity, and expression J Am Psychiatric Nurses Assoc 2002 8 44 50 Yousefi F Khasi B Taymoori P Azadi N The incidence and control of anger among students at Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in 2015-2016 Shenakht J Psychol Psychiatry 2015 2 54 63 Besharat MA Hoseini SA Mehr MR Azizi K Reliability, validity and factor analysis of the scale of anger rumination in Tehran University students Res Educ Syst 2008 2 9 23 Motlagh M Golnasaee NJ Check globalization in the field of education in the information age J Strateg Stud Glob 2011 1 109 24 Zibaei A Gholami H Zare M Mahdian H Haresabadi M The effect of web-based education on anger management in guidance school girls of Mashhad Iran J Med Educ 2014 13 784 93 Shokoohi-Yekta M Akbari-Zardkhaneh S Ghahvehchi-Hosseini F The effects of teaching problem solving and anger management on educational methods and mental health of preschool teachers J Sch Psychol 2014 2 98 117 Moghadasin M Moghadam MA Inventory factor structure (confirmation) Persian version of the state trait anger expression STAXI-2 in clinical population J Educ Meas 2010 4 127 61